Analysis of the Role of Endogenous Cytoplasmic DNA in Aging
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Analysis of the Role of Endogenous Cytoplasmic DNA in Aging


Endogenous cytoplasmic DNA (cytoDNA) is a contributing factor to the sterile inflammation associated with several chronic age-related conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Fig. 1 Cytosolic DNA species and sensing in aging and disease.Fig. 1 Cytosolic DNA species and sensing in aging and disease. (Miller KN, et al., 2011)

CD BioSciences uses several technologies to analyze endogenous cytoDNA in aging, with a focus on mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic chromatin fragments. Our advanced platforms enable us to quantitatively assess DNA mutations, study cellular senescence, and investigate inflammatory responses with precision.

Endogenous Cytoplasmic DNA Involved in Aging

We examine both mitochondrial DNA and cytoplasmic chromosomal DNA fragments, which closely relate to triggering cellular aging, the development of an age-related phenotype, and the promotion of age-related diseases. A detailed analysis is displayed in the table below.

Types of Endogenous cytoDNA Service Details
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) We start by analyzing the accumulation of mtDNA mutations leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and age-related decline in cellular bioenergetics.
Then, we uncover signaling pathways triggered by mtDNA damage that lead to cellular senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP).
Cytoplasmic chromosomal DNA fragments We analyze not only chromosomal DNA fragments in the cytoplasm but also nuclear DNA fragments released into the cytoplasm, which activate DNA damage response pathways and senescence-related phenotypes.

Overview of Our Endogenous Cytoplasmic DNA Analysis Services

Analyzing cytoplasmic DNA mutations and their effects

Firstly, we examine the effects of cytoplasmic DNA variation on mitochondrial function and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Conversely, our study reveals the connections between the integrity of cytoplasmic DNA, oxidative stress, and the aging process, as well as their impact on age-related diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

Investigating the function of cytoplasmic DNA in inflammation and immune dysregulation

We explore the conceivable correlation between mutations in cytoplasmic DNA, mitochondrial pressure, and the activation of inflammatory pathways, such as the cGAS-STING signal pathway. These factors result in prolonged inflammation and compromised immune regulation in aging tissues. We are further investigating the effect of cytoplasmic DNA on eliciting innate immune responses and the formation of inflammatory conditions linked to aging.

Workflow for Analyzing the Role of Endogenous Cytoplasmic DNA in Aging

  • Sample collection and preparation
    We obtain cell or tissue samples representing different stages of aging, including young, middle-aged, and old individuals, as well as age-matched controls. Then, we utilize appropriate methods for the isolation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial fractions, ensuring the preservation of DNA integrity during sample preparation.
  • Visualization and localization of cytoplasmic DNA
    We use immunofluorescence microscopy and live-cell imaging to visualize and track fluorescently labeled mtDNA and cytoplasmic chromosomal DNA fragments, providing insights into their distribution and localization within the cytoplasm.
  • Proteomic analysis
    We employ mass spectrometry-based proteomics to profile proteins involved in mtDNA maintenance, DNA repair, and DNA damage response pathways, elucidating interactions impacting cytoplasmic DNA stability during aging.
  • Data interpretation
    We integrate findings from diverse analyses to interpret the impact of endogenous cytoplasmic DNA alterations on aging-related processes, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, and age-related pathologies.

Examining the function of endogenous cytoplasmic DNA yields valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie the aging process. CD BioSciences is capable of investigating the influence of mitochondrial DNA mutations, cytoplasmic DNA-induced inflammation, and cellular senescence on aging-related phenomena due to its proficiency in this field. If you are interested in our services, please feel free to contact us or make an online inquiry.


  1. Miller KN, et al. Cytoplasmic DNA: sources, sensing, and role in aging and disease. Cell. 2021, 184 (22): 5506-5526.

All of our services and products are intended for preclinical research use only and cannot be used to diagnose, treat or manage patients.